LOCKE said: "Things of this world are in so constant a flux that nothing remains long in the same state. Thus: people, riches, trade, power, change places; flourishing, mighty cities come to ruin and prove in time neglected, desolate corners, whilst unfrequented places grow into populous countries, filled with trade and inhabitants." The rise and progress of this industrious town fully verifies the second proposition of the above quotation from the renowned Locke.
There certainly was not a more un-"frequented" place in western Pennsylvania than the spot where Du Bois1 now stands, prior to the Low Grade Division of the A. V. R. R.
(1The place is generally known as Du Bois City, in contra-distinction of Du Boistown in Lycoming county, Pa.)
It is useless to contradict the statement that railroads are civilizers, for start of this busy place dates its rise from the location and opening of the Low Grade road. In earlier years this entire section of the county was a wilderness roamed by deer in numberless herds, and the big "Beaver Meadow," between East and Central Du Bois, was their undisturbed sanctuary. Now the shrill whistle of the locomotive awakens the echoes in the valley, dying with the reverberations from the neighboring hills, whilst the rumble and clatter of heavily laden freight trains is significant of the fruits of industry and enterprise.
The "Beaver Meadows," mentioned above, were the regular camping ground of the Cornplanter (or Seneca) tribe of Indians, who had a trail through here from Warren to Clinton county. (See Pioneer Incidents in the chapter on Brady township). That Indians occupied this part of Clearfield county is still further verified by the fact that near the Union cemetery, east of Troutville. On the road leading from Luthersburg to Punxsutawney, certain evidences of as old Indian town or lodging place existed, and that it had been such for many years and was likely on their path between their permanent towns at Clearfield and Punxsutawney. A grove of large saplings was located a little north of the. spring where the public road now is, and the larger trees had disappeared near that place, but near the spring on the east were a couple of large white pines standing, and when John Smith and Rev. John Reams cut said trees down, in 1836, numerous tomahawk marks were very perceptible in toward the center of the tree, evidently retained during the growth of many years. Besides the evidences just narrated, there were many others found in different places, giving traces of numerous Indians having been here for many years.
Topography -Topographically, the place is located on what may be called a "geological breakdown," on the western slope of the Allegheny Mountains at the point known as the big "Beaver Meadow," 1,390 feet above the sea level, said "Beaver Meadow" being about from five to six miles long, and from one-half to three-fourths of a mile wide. Its entire length is divided by Sandy Lick Creek.
The engineers who surveyed the old State canal in Governor Ritner's time, 1836, claimed that this meadow had only twenty-one feet of a fall, in a distance of five miles, (from Falls Creek east via where Du Bois now stands). The hills "walling in" this great "meadow" at some points break off abruptly, with the stratified rocks dipping towards this valley on the mountain. This feature with its high elevation (1,390 feet), goes far toward the conclusion of a "geological break-down." Thee adjoining country is hilly here and there, flattening into small "plateaus" and an occasional "knob."
Geography.-Geographically, Du Bois is located in the extreme northwestern part of the county, only two miles east from the Jefferson county line. The site is beautiful, on the western slope (as above indicated) of the salubrious and romantic Alleghenies.
In point of location the. finest site is not always the best for a large business town. Natural advantages and proper distances from other large business centers constitute what may be called " natural locations." With Du Bois all, site, natural advantages and location, are united-situated equidistant between Williamsport on the southeast and Pittsburgh on the southwest, 127 miles from both of these cities via the Low Grade railroad.
Lumber, coal and agriculture, the three great elements of prosperity, which are so rarely found together, seem to have smiled on this town by uniting so harmoniously in and around this locality. Of white pine, hemlock and hard wood there is a superabundance. Mr. John E. Du Bois alone has over twenty thousand acres of choice pine timber land, underlaid with coal, lime and other minerals. Two veins of limestone are known to exist within two miles from Du Bois. The upper vein is a beautiful blue limestone six feet thick, the second or lower vein is an excellent white lime five feet thick, and beneath this is a magnificent bed of fire clay.
This entire section is blessed with vast deposits of bituminous coal, being the "Lower Freeport," better known as the Reynoldsville vein; it is seven feet thick.
Du Bois and vicinity are located in the "third basin," which is about ten miles wide, measured from the second to the third anticlinal axis, which enters Clearfield county at Falls Creek (junction of four railroads), two miles west of Du Bois, and merges into "Boon's Mountain" in the extreme northwestern corner of the county.
The "third basin" is drained by " Bennett's Branch" to the northeast, and Sandy Lick Creek to the southwest, and contains the coal of Luthersburg, Du Bois, Penfield and the intervening country.
Early Settlements.-Prior to 1812 Mr. John Casper Stoeber, of Dauphin county, Pa., grandfather (on the mother's side) of the present generation of Scheffers (some write it "Shaffer" now), who with their descendants still reside in Du Bois and vicinity, pre-empted some land in this section of the State, which in the course of time entailed to Mrs. George Scheffer. (daughter of Mr. Stoeber, and mother of George, Frederick and Michael Scheffer). George Scheffer and his wife, with their three sons and an equal number of daughters, left Dauphin county in the spring of 1812 to hunt up this inherited land, with a view to improve the same. They arrived at Joab Ogden's on May 12 (no" Carlisle station on B. R. & P. Railroad, about five miles south of Du Bois), which by the way, was the only family except bachelor James Woodside, the first settler of Clearfield county-for twenty miles around. The next day, May 13, they went in search of their land. They went as far As where the "Rumbarger House " (hotel) now stands, and put up a "bark shanty" beside the spring which bubbles and sparkles to-day as it did then. The next night Frederick and Michael slept in the " shanty." There had been no ax put to a tree in this part of the county prior to 1812. The Stoeber pre-emption claim laid a few miles up Sandy Lick Creek, which is now known as the "Aunt Katy Shaffer place," and " Shaffer station" on the Low Grade Railroad, but the land on which they built the "bark shanty " belonged to a Mr. Gaskill, from whom George, jr., bought it. After George, jr.'s death the administrator sold it to one of George's sons, Michael Shaffer, and he (Michael S.) sold to Jacob Heberling in 1853, and Heberling sold to his son David Heberling, and David Heberling sold to John Rumbarger in 1865.
Of pioneer incidents it may be stated that in 1812 there was no store nearer than "Old Town" (as Clearfield was then called). The merchants used to "wagon" their goods from Philadelphia. The nearest mill was on the Clarion River, forty miles from this settlement. In 1814, however, a mill was built at Curwensville, on the Susquehanna River, nineteen miles distant. In those early days these sturdy pioneers subsisted principally on venison, bear meat, and other game, which abounded. This noble band of settlers did not increase in number, as settlements are now made. For ten long, lonesome, and weary years the Scheffers, Ogdens, and James Woodside constituted the community in this wide wilderness, after which time some Germans (from Germany) commenced to settle in the vicinity where Troutville now stands, with exception of James, Benjamin, and Thomas Carson, who came In 1814, and Lebbeus Luther in 1820.
Of interesting pioneer incidents, which were numerous, we will give but one, which was related to the writer by Michael Scheffer when he was in his eighty-sixth year, in which he (the narrator) was a participant:
"During the same summer (1812) we came here, we cleared about two acres on the ridge, as we called it, about where Mr. Rumbarger's nice residence now (1876) stands. One evening our dogs barked ferociously on the 'ridge,' and my brother looked out from the 'shanty' and saw a strange looking animal standing on a log. It was just about twilight. Father, George, Fred, and l went up. The dogs had now treed the animal. Fred shot at it, and then it went up higher. We concluded to watch it all night. We remained a long while, but the night seemed long, and so we felled a hemlock against the hemlock on which the animal was. It now came down, the 'tug of war' commencing. One of the dogs caught it by the neck. Fred caught it by the tail. I had a hatchet with which I belabored its head, and father had an ax with which he struck effective blows in its ribs. At last we killed it, not knowing what it was. The next day I took a paw of the dead animal, and went to Joab Ogden to ask him what kind of an animal it was. He got much excited when he saw the paw, and exclaimed, 'You d-n Dutch! It is a panther! It might have killed you all,' I took the scalp and went to Squire McClure, on the Susquehanna River, above Curwensville, to whom I made affidavit that we killed the panther. He gave me a certificate which I was to present to the county commissioners at Bellefonte-Clearfield county belonged to Centre county then. The bounty was eight dollars, but I sold it to a man who was going to Bellefonte for seven dollars."
The developement by actual settlers was exceedingly slow, and long after the organization of Clearfield county (1822) and Brady township (which latter occurred in 1826) the section where Du Bois now stands was often designated as the "Wilderness over on Sandy." In 1865 John Rumbarger settled here (after buying the "old Scheffer farm " from David Heberling), and here he "smoked his pipe in peace" until the opening of the Low Grade Division of the A. V. Railroad, the connecting link between the P. and E. and the A. V. railroads, at which time the latent spirit of his somewhat easy-going temperament was aroused, and he conceived the idea of starting a town, and in the summer of 1872 the town was "laid out" and called Rumbarger. In July of the same year the writer of this sketch bought two town lots-the first sold. About this time John Du Bois appeared upon the scene, and we might say: The result is known.
Among the leading business men who early commenced operations in this new town were: Thomas Montgomery (deceased), Glasgow & Troxell (Troxell is now-1887 -county treasurer), J. B. Ellis, and C. D. Evans & Brother, all of whom were dealers in general merchandise, and settled in 1873. Dr. Smathers, J. A. Johnston, and W. L. Johnston also came in the same year. in the year following Dr. McHenry, William Corley (deceased), and many others came. In 1874 the Rumbarger post-office was established, with George L. Glasgow, postmaster, and J. B. Ellis, assistant. Passenger traffic was also opened on the Low Grade Railroad. The name of the post-office was changed to Du Bois in 1876, to correspond with the name of the railroad station, and was taken to the eastern part of town (now Third ward) in that year, and kept in the depot building, but was again removed to the central part (now, 1887, Second ward) of town in 1877.
Manufacturing and Mining.-John Du Bois commenced his "little" mill in the fall of 1872, and the large mill in 1873, completing the same in 1876, and put in operation in May of that year, at which time the writer took up a permanent residence here.
The large mill is two hundred and fifty feet long, eighty feet wide, and fifty-five feet high, with a two hundred and fifty horse-power engine, and had a capacity, in 1876, Of 120,000 feet boards, 60,000 shingles, 40,000 lath, and about 10,000 pickets per day. This mill has underwent several reconstructions-always in the line of improvement. During the winter of 1886-7 it was again entirely remodeled, by putting in a Sinker & Davis "band" saw, one large circular saw, and one set Wicker's "gang" saws. This change did not, however, increase the capacity, but leaving it about the same as before; the great consideration being the saving of lumber by decreasing the quantity of saw-dust, as well as decreasing the number of men employed (in this mill) is from one hundred to seventy-five. The engines are now supplied with a double bell crank, made of "crucible " steel by Herr Krupp, at Essen, Germany, weighing about two tons, and costing $1,200. It is now one of the most improved mills in the country, being fully abreast, if not ahead, in the employment of the most approved and practical machinery known. The "bill'' mill-sometimes known as the little mill-was built in 1879, on the exact site of the first "bill" mill, which was built in 1877, and totally destroyed by fire in June,1879. It is 160 by 60 feet, employs two engines, one 160 horse-power, and the other sixty-five horse-power. It manufactures bill timber, boards, shingles, and box boards; capacity, per diem, 35,000 feet of boards, 55,000 shingles, box boards 30,000. It employs sixty-five men and boys, and runs the whole year round, having never stopped longer than two weeks at a time for repairs. Daniel Gilbert is the, engineer, and Frank Patchel, foreman.
The box factory was built in 1881; size, 180 by 50 feet It employs one 120 horse-power engine. It manufactures shook for oil cases, tobacco cases, fruit cases, siding and flooring. Capacity, five to six thousand oil cases per them (the oil cases are used for packing refined oil-in tin cans-for shipment to Europe), and three hundred tobacco cases per diem; employs about fifty men and boys, and runs the year round. In close proximity and in connection with the box factory is a large dry-house, Kerwin & Wolf's patent, containing four kilns, each sixty feet long. These kilns receive the green lumber the saw, and dry it thoroughly in about three days. Frank W. Hetfield is its present foreman.
The hemlock mill was built in the spring of 1884; size, 128 by 40 feet It employs one 100 horse-power engine, and manufactures hemlock lumber, all sizes; also hardwood lumber. Average capacity per day, 36,000 feet, board measure. It employs twenty-one men. Ed. Benner, engineer; and G. W. Parker, foreman.
The lumber yard is an immense affair, and contains, on an average, twenty million feet of manufactured lumber-forty men are employed all the year round--and is equipped with all the latest labor-saving improvements; can ship bill timber over eighty feet long. Everything manufactured in all the mills passes through this yard. There are four mules employed on the trestle-tracks regularly, three extra when all the mills are running at the same time, making seven in all. John McGinnis is the efficient shipping "boss." The following statement of the monthly shipment for 1886, in car loads, will afford a better idea of the size of the lumber yard, and the immense capacity of these mills. It is doubtful if this aggregate was exceeded by any single lumber dealer in the state, and probably not in the entire country:
The Du Bois Iron Works are the largest and most extensive in the county, The works were originally started at Du Bois Town, near Williamsport, and were brought to Du Bois in 1875. The works were built in 1875-6-size 160 by 60 and employs five engines, two in the machine department, two for fanning hot air to the new store and opera house building, and one in Edison incandescent electric light plant, making an aggregate of one hundred and twenty-five horse power, employs about twenty men regularly the year round, lighted with Edison's electric light. The pattern shop, foundry, and black. smith shop all belong and are connected with the works. All kinds of saw and planing-mill machinery, steam-engines, car wheels and castings of all descriptions are manufactured here, also the "DuBois Patent Lathe Tool," which is sold in all parts of the world, and the , Cornelious Stump Machine is made on the premises; also the iron work for the "Du Bois Patent Dam" is made here, and all kinds of repairing are also done here. The electric light connected with the works was started in 1885, and first light furnished in January, 1886. It employs an engine of thirty horse-power. The plant furnishes three hundred and fifty candle power light, which is used in the iron works, the new store and opera house building, in the hotel and in many residences in the Third ward. Hart Fulmer is foreman of the iron works, and "Jerry" Haag engineer of the electric light engine. The hotel was built in 1879, and is 100 by 56, three stories, and Mansard roof and basement, has fifty-eight bed rooms, all elegantly furnished, and one sample room, and bar and barber shop in the basement of the building. Part of the building was formerly occupied as a store-room, which (after the removal of the store to the new building) was converted into an excellent and pleasant dining-room. The hotel is lighted throughout with the Edison electric light, and heated by steam; A. A. Newell, manager.
This immense business plant enjoys facilities second to none in the county for "stocking" the mills, first by Sandy Lick Creek with its patent dams, then by "Clear Run Railroad," which is owned and controlled by this vast enterprise, is three and a half miles long, employs two engines, fifteen log cars and three coal cars; besides there is a projected log railroad known as the Junietta Road, to be seven miles long, thus affording supplies of logs, etc., through the entire year. In reverting to the lumber yard and mills, it is not to be omitted that all are protected by an excellent system of water-works, planned by the late John Du Bois. The reservoir is located on the "Hill," Third ward, near the Episcopal Church, with mains leading through the lumber yard and all the mills, etc. This reservoir furnishes an ample supply of water at all times, affording a most excellent fire protection, the purpose for which it was established.
In the fall of 1875 E. M. Kuntz, proprietor of the City Hotel (corner of Long and Courtney streets), cast his lot here, followed in 1876 by H. S. Knarr, merchant tailor, now owner of the "Knarr block," a three story brick building. Fred Tracy and many others came the same year. There was a lull in the increase in population during 1874 and '75, but in 1876 the new city began to expand. The opening of the Sandy Lick Colliery, followed by the Rochester Colliery of Bell, Lewis & Yates in the next year, put new life into the town.
Bell, Lewis & Yates.-For description of Rochester Colliery see "Mines," in the chapter on Sandy township.
This firm has its large store and offices in Du Bois, First ward, where the business of the "home" office is transacted under the efficient management of the Hon. S. B. Elliott.
The Sandy Lick Gas, Coal and Coke Company also had their office and store in Du Bois, First ward, during the time of their existence; also the " Centenniel" Colliery of Messrs. Jones Brothers had their store and office in Du Bois First ward.
In 1875 the Hon. J. E. Long, of Jefferson county, bought a large farm of Henry Shaffer, and "laid it out" into town lots, known as Long's Addition to Du Bois, for the sale of which the writer was agent. The greater portion of this farm is now occupied by what is known as the central part of the town-Second ward. From 1876 improvements were so frequent, and increase in population so rapid that to particularize is simply impossible at this date, 1887.
Long & Brady established a hardware store in 1876 and still continue under the firm name of Long, Brady & Co., doing a large and satisfactory business. They were followed in 1877 by P. S. Weber & Co.'s large dry goods and clothing store. This firm continued in business till March, 1886, when they closed out their business, having done a large and successful business, but in March, 1887, the senior partner, P. S. Weber, opened a large and exclusive dry goods and notion store in the "Knarr block," Courtney street.
Other parties also commenced operations about this time, or shortly after, representing almost every line of business among the were the following: George Schwem, groceries and provisions; Grier Bros., hardware; D. W. Sparks, livery; W. W. Rainey, groceries, etc., came in 1879; H. Loeb, clothing and furnishing goods; D. L. Corbett, dry goods, etc.; Weber & Heidrick, boots and shoes, in 1880. The latter were succeeded by Cannon, Hollister & Co., who engaged in the same line of business in 1885. W. C. Schwem & Co. succeeded George Schwem in 1884. Moulthrop & Hibner started a general store in 1882, succeeded by Moulthrop & McClelland in 1885. L. E. Weber, clothing and furnishing goods, came in 1882. Charles Scalen, groceries and provisions; A. T. Sprankle, groceries, etc.; E. Bangert, fancy dry goods, in 1883. Dr. R. M. Boyls, drugs, etc.; Hanson Bros. & Co., furniture; Frank Guinzburg, guns and sporting goods, in 1884.
There are upwards of one hundred stores and other business establishments in town. Changes were so frequent as to preclude enumeration or special mention, as the following statement of the increase of population shows: Population in 1872, three families; 1876, Weber's count, 728 ; 1877, Egan's count, 1,307 ; 1880, United States census, 2,719; 1882, estimated 3,700 to 4,000; 1887, estimated 6,000 to 6,500. 1877 shows an increase of 81 per cent in one year, and the figures for 1882 and '87 can be relied upon as very nearly correct, although other good judges on matters of this kind claim the present (1887) population to be no less than 7,000. When the adverse circumstances with which this town had to contend are considered--being panic born--the increase of population is phenomenal and unprecedented, except among visionary and often ephemeral oil towns.
In the fall of 1877 the first attempt made to organize a borough was dropped to secure the formation of a new township (Sandy) with its election-poll at Du Bois.
The reasons for which movement were obvious to those who were interested in the prosperity of the town. The final and successful effort was made in the autumn of 1880, and the town was incorporated at the January term of court in 1881. L. A. Brady was elected burgess, and Fred. Tracy, constable, on a citizens' ticket. The justices of the peace for Sandy township-J. P. Taylor and W. N. Prothero-were to serve the balance of their respective terms as justices in the new corporation in which they resided. During the first attempt to secure the incorporation of the town, considerable excitement prevailed in relation to its corporate name. Some advocated " Rumbarger," others "Sandy Valley," and still others - including the writer-stood for "Du Bois," which corresponded with the name of the post-office and railroad station. The first proposition to divide the borough into wards was considered by the council at its regular meeting, January 4, 1883. The town council instructed George D. Hamor to prepare an application to court at the March term of court in 1883, and the request was granted at a subsequent term, and division was made on recommendation of viewers, following the natural, order of streams, etc. All that part of town known as " Rumbarger side," or, "West Du Bois," situate south of Sandy Lick Creek. and west of Pentz Run, was established and designated First ward, and the "central" part, which lies in the southeast angle, formed by Sandy Lick Creek and Pentz Run, as Second ward, and the eastern part, lying, north and east of Sandy Lick 'Creek, and generally known as "East Du Bois," and "Du Bois Side," as the Third ward. The Second ward represents the mercantile or business center of town.
During the earlier times of the town, much might be written on various themes. Law and order were then somewhat loose, on account of distance to Brady township officers, who resided at or near Luthersburg. With the erection of Sandy township (which township surrounds Du Bois), this condition of things and affairs was materially changed. The necessary funds were raised by private subscriptions, with which a " lock up " was built in the summer of 1879, near where George D. Hamor's residence now stands- Courtney street, Second wardvafter which time no trouble was experienced in preserving the general peace. The "lock-up" was removed early in the spring of 1885, when snow was yet on the ground, to the "Cow pound," in rear of Central Opera House. A little incident occurred by the removal of the "lockup," which caused no little commotion. In placing the "cooler" on the large "runners" or "skids," it overcame the control of Mr. Letchworth, the street commissioner, and slid down the street, striking the corner of Mr. Hamor's residence, doing considerable damage to the house, which damage the town bid to account for, to the satisfaction of Mr. Hamor.
Up to 1885 there were no telegraphic accommodations, except at the offices in connection with the A. V., and B. R. and P. Railroad stations, but in January, 1885, the town council passed an ordinance granting the right of way to W. U. Telegraph Co., establishing an office in the central part of town, at the Nicholson House. In the month of August, same year, the council passed an ordinance granting right of way to Central Penna. Telephone Co., establishing their office on the corner of Long and Courtney streets-Dr. Pettigrew's drug store-now Vosburgh's pharmacy, thus giving telephone connection with Luthersburg, Curwensville, and the county seat, and there with the telephone exchange, supplying a great want, the convenience of which can scarcely be overestimated, and is highly appreciated by a progressive public.
Fire Protection.-The town being of a rapid growth, the leading business men early realized the great danger of fire, since at first all buildings were wooden structures; but, as is generally the case, everybody's interest seemed nobody's interest, so finally in the summer of 1881 Long & Brady, P. S. Weber & Co., and Dr. Pettigrew and a few others concluded to purchase a double-acting force pump, which they placed in a twenty feet deep well, dug for the purpose in the rear of the First National bank, which site was at that time a vacant lot. They also purchased two hundred feet of hose. Fortunately, it was never needed to put out fire, but served the good purpose of sprinkling, scrubbing, etc. This attempt of protection finally led to the organization of a water company-not, however, until considerable agitation and discussion took place, which again subsided until it was ascertained that a syndicate bad been formed at Harrisburg, including some citizens from Du Bois; said syndicate endeavored to secure charters in five or six live towns in western Pennsylvania. including Du Bois, for speculation, promising no fire protection at a definite, future time. This brought on a storm of indignation on the part of the citizens in general, resulting in making an application for a charter at once, as a large Blake steam pump and sufficient pipe to reach from Ross's Mills (near Pentz Run) along Long street to Courtney, and along Courtney to the Plank road. The State department at Harrisburg, seeing the justness of the demand of the citizens as against the syndicate, granted a charter to the former on the 18th day of May, 1883, known as the "Citizens Water Company of Du Bois." Charter members were the following: P. S. Weber, D. J. Crowell, Levi Heidrick, D. L. Corbett, W. T. Ross, James Grier, Emanuel Kuntz, J. E. Dale, H. Loeb, and George D. Hamor. As an outgrowth of the establishment of the "Water Line," extending as above. indicated, with its pump at Ross's Mills, from whence it derives its power, the Union Hose Company was organized on June 20, 1883, counting a large number of its best citizens in its organization. The company is out of debt, and has a small surplus in its treasury. On January 12, 1884, the "Independent Hook and Ladder Company" was organized. Captain G. W. Woodring was its first president, and is the present chief of both companies constituting the fire department. The fire department controls a splendid hook and ladder truck, with the necessary equipment, also a splendid hose carriage, which was donated to the Union Hose Company by the ladies of the place. In connection with the hose carriage there are seven hundred feet of good hose. The hook and ladder truck and hose were in part paid for by the council. Both of these companies have of late kept up only a quasi organization, but never failed to respond at any alarm of fire, which speaks highly in favor of the manhood composing the companies. The town has went through several serious fires, and, thanks to the Water Line and these companies, thousands of dollars have been saved.
Roads and Railways.-The public roads and railways entering into Du Bob stand second to none, especially the public roads which lead to every point of the compass, viz. two lead to Luthersburg, etc., one known as the "hill" road, and the other the "bottom " road; another leads to West Liberty and Troutville, another to Reynoldsville, still another to Falls Creek, one to Clearfield via Rockton, and finally another leading to Penfield via Sabula ("tunnel"), thus making a complete net-work of wagon roads, which are kept in good condition the whole year around, and as a general rule much better than the majority of public roads in other parts of the county. The railway facilities are the best of any one town in the county. The great Low Grade Chevron of the A. V. R. R. which was opened in the summer of 1874, gives an eastern and northern "outlet" via the P. & E. at Driftwood, and a western outlet to Pittsburgh, etc., via A. V. R. R. at Red Bank. The Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh R. R. was opened in August, 1883, affording an excellent outlet to Rochester, Buffalo and the lake region, as well as a direct line to the great Kinzua bridge, the highest railway bridge in the world, and to the nation's pride and admiration of the whole world-Niagara Falls, thus affording most excellent shipping facilities as well as unrivaled advantages to the pleasure seeker. The depot of the Low Grade is in East Du Bois, third ward, and that of the B. R. & P. in West Du Bois, first ward, the central part of the town, lying between the two depots at convenient distances.
Other railroads are in contemplation which will finally enter this town, making it still a greater railroad center than is dreamed of by many of the citizens of to-day. The link most desired and needed is the extension of the Pennsylvania at Curwensville, or the Beech Creek at Clearfield to Du Bois. As it now is, Du Bois, the largest town in the county, has from twenty-two to twenty- five miles over one of the most lonely,--over the mountains via Rockton and "Horn's Shanty," or the second choice over probably the poorest kept road in the county, the "Cream Hill" turnpike-a toll road, and relic of gross injustice to the people of Clearfield county.
Agriculture.-Agriculture can only be mentioned incidentally, as it exists in the surrounding townships. The soil is of superior quality; in fact, the soil of Brady, Sandy and Union townships is equal to that of Lancaster county. True, it is not in such a high state of cultivation as in the latter county, but it is yielding most excellent cereal crops and fruits wherever properly cultivated and cared for; besides there are thousands of acres immediately north from Du Bois, belonging to John E. Du Bois, of superior limestone soil, which is awaiting the advent of the plow, which it is hoped will come to pass ere many years roll around. J. E. Du Bois has 1,000 acres under cultivation. The stock consists of seventy-three horses, seven mules, sixteen yokes of oxen, fifty cows, one hundred twenty-five head of cattle, a herd of about two hundred sheep on an average. and about sixty hogs. The productions of this farm in 1886 were as follows: 5,262 bushels oats, 3,122 bushels corn, average yield of wheat per year, 800 to 1,000 bushels, 362 bushels rye, 480 bushels buckwheat, 3,500 bushels potatoes, 500 tons of hay, with a large vegetable garden supplying the hotel, store, etc. There were 200 acres cleared in 1886. The farm was commenced in '77, clearing on an average about 100 acres a year. C. F. Fuller is superintendent of the farm.
Banking.-The town labored long under the inconvenience of no banking facilities, being obliged to send to Brookville, Reynoldsville or Clearfield and Curwensville, and even to other places for accommodations in that line, until September 21, 1880 when the "Du Bois Deposit Bank" opened its door for a general banking business. The present officers are: Dr. W. McBryer, president; W. C. Bovard, cashier and L. J. Bovard, assistant cashier. This institution is favorably and well known. This bank was followed by the "First National Bank of Du Bois City," erecting its commodious and modern brick bank building on Long street, having the latest improved vault and a superior money safe (within vault), specially constructed for this bank. It opened its door for business on August 1, 1883. This bank has a "paid up" capital stock of $50,000, with privilege to increase to $100,000. This institution is widely and favorably known, and enjoys the confidence of a large and rapidly increasing business. F. K. Arnold was its first president, J. E. Long, cashier, M. W. Wise, assistant cashier. The present officers are: James E. Long, president; M. W. Wise, cashier, and M. I. McCreight, assistant cashier. Directors: L. A. Brady, E. G. Clark, P. S. Weber, M. W. Wise, C. H. Gordon, Daniel North, M. I. McCreight and J. E. Long.
Schools, etc.-Education is to the mind what cleanliness is to the body; the beauties of the one, as well as the other, are blemished, if not totally lost, by neglect; and as the richest diamond cannot shoot forth its lustre, wanting the lapidary's skill, so will the latent virtues of the noblest mind be buried in obscurity, if not called forth by precept and the rules of good manners.
The people of Du Bois early believed in the great influence of an educational training, and demanded adequate provisions and facilities at the hands of Brady township, to which the town belonged, and "Old Mother Brady" did not try to shirk her duty to the promising town, commenced the erection of a suitable building in the summer of 1876, on the ground where the central (high) school building now stands. The structure was a one-story building with two large and commodious rooms, reached by a neat and suitable vestibule. The rooms were occupied during the term of 1876-77. Prior to the erection of this school-house-known as the "Central school-house" of Du Bois-the people had to content themselves by sending their children (no matter in what part of the town they lived) to the " White school," so called' which stood (and still stands as a tenement house) immediately beyond what is known as the " camp-ground." But as this room was too small, even prior to 1876, halls had to be rented, which, as a rule, were poorly calculated for such a purpose. In 1879 (then the town belonged to Sandy) the growth of the town demanded considerable more room, and the Sandy township school board being alert to the needs and demands of the town, erected two large and commodious two-story school buildings, one each in West and East Du Bois, with two large rooms each; still there was not room enough for the accommodation of the children, and halls had to be again rented. Now, grades were established as far as practicable. The growth of the schools still being rapid demanded still more rooms, and accordingly, in 1883, two years after the incorporation of the town as a borough. The borough board saw the pressing need for more room, concluded to remove the (frame) central school-house to a lot opposite the old site to make room for a large brick school building. On March 13, 1883, a contract for the erection of this building was awarded to R. B. Taylor; price, $12,760; with extras, and. furnishing the same was increased to $14,000, for which bonds were issued bearing five per cent interest, payable in not less than five years, nor more than twenty years.- The elegant building reflects great credit on the board of 1883, as well as on the county, which is alive to educational interests. This building furnishes eight rooms, but still the pressure for more room continued, and in the summer of 1885 an extra two-story building in the first ward was erected, and two additional rooms were built to the school building in the third ward. The first ward has four "day" and two "night" schools; the second ward has ten " day " (no "night") schools ; the third ward has four "day " schools, employing eighteen teachers, two of which teach "night" schools, making a total of twenty schools. Number of pupils enrolled in the winter of 1887-males, 562; females, 560; total, 1,122; male pupils attending night schools, 70; grand total, 1,192. The term in 1886-7 was seven months. The schools are graded-first ward has four grades, second ward ten, and third ward four. Each room represents a grade, although there are two grades in each room; or, in other words, it requires two years to get through one room to one next higher, except in the second where the grades are closer. Professor Frank Hutton was principal for the term of 188&-7. The grading above given is not permanent, and is slightly changed as circumstances way require. Ile present board consists of D. T. Sharp, president; L. M. Truxal, secretary; James M. Bryan, D. C. Hindman, Howard Clarke, John Nihill, T. G. Gormley, L. S. Hay, and Charles Loring, making a board of nine directors, three from each of the three wards.
Paley, speaking on the establishment of the church, says: "The single end we ought to propose by it is, the preservation and communication of religious knowledge, every other idea and every other end that have been mixed with this-as the making of the church an engine, or even an ally, of the State; converting it into the means of strengthening or diffusing influence; or regarding it as a support of regal, in opposition to popular forms of government have served only to debase the institution, and to introduce into it numerous corruptions and abuses."
The province of the church is most excellently defined, and its influence. and power indirectly admitted, by the quotation from Paley.
It is this "influence and power" which evidently lies at the base of the establishment of churches to-day, and imbued with the spirit to wield this "power," prompts men everywhere to build churches. Du Bois early felt this "influence," and materialized the same in the organization and erection of the M. E. Church, the beginning and organization of which may be dated in 1868, when Rev. T. J. Baker preached occasionally in the dwelling of John Rumbarger, now the "Rumbarger House," and an organization was effected in the latter part of 1870, when Rev. L. G. Merril, in charge of the Luthersburg circuit, held a "revival" meeting in the old "white " school-house on the West Liberty road, just beyond the old "camp-ground." At this time a class was organized, but through the want of a place of meeting this class became scattered, and remained so until the pastorate of Rev. J. N. Clover from 1874 to 1875-on the Luthersburg charge. The scattered members were, as far as possible, gathered together, the class reorganized, and services held in the room over the' present store of J. B. . Ellis, which room was fitted up for the purpose by Mr. John Rumbarger, who then owned the property. In this class were Mrs. Fanny Ellis, J. W. Kelly and wife, Mrs. Catharine A. McClellan, Mrs. Eliza Rumbarger, John Shaffer, Henry Shaffer, Mrs. Reisinger, James Dixon, and others. A movement was soon begun for the erection of a church building, which was consummated in 1876 and 1877, under the pastorate of Rev. D. C. Plannett, in the structure now occupied by the M. E. society, located on Booth street, first ward, near the B. R. & P. Railroad crossing. In1879 Du Bois, which had hitherto been connected with the Luthersburg charge, was made a station, and Rev. Cyril Wilson was appointed pastor. His successors, up to the present time, have been as follows: 1880-81, H. M. Bums; 1882-84, R. C. Smith; 1885-86, F. H. Beck. the present efficient pastor. The present membership of the church is 325; Sabbath-school, over 200.
Evangelical Association.-In point of time this association came next. The first class of this church was organized in 1873 by Rev. J. A. Dunlap. The following year, 1874, he erected a chapel on "Cottage Hill," second ward, being the first church building in Du Bois. Rev. Dunlap (living in Brookville, Pa.) filled the appointment till the spring of 1876, when his successor, Rev, William Houpt, came, during whose pastorate the parsonage was built. He was followed by Rev. L. H. Hetrick in 1877, who labored till 1880, succeeding in paying an indebtedness of $400, including the foundation walls Of the new church building. It was during Rev. Hetrick's pastorate that the present church edifice was commenced (1879), on Long street, second ward. Rev.A. W. Platt came in the spring of 1880 and remained two and one-half years, when he resigned, Rev. William Houpt supplying the balance of the conference year (1883), followed by Rev. Garner in 1884. During the pastorate of Rev. A. W. Platt the parsonage and "chapel" were sold, and the proceeds applied to the "erection" fund of the new church, which was completed in 1881 , as the Trinity Evangelical Church." The present pastor came in the spring of 1885. The present (1887) number of members is about seventy; Sunday-school, about eighty scholars. This society is in a healthy, growing condition, as the labors of the present pastor, Rev. F. M. Brickley, prove. He raised the membership in 1886 from fifty-one to its present standing, notwithstanding removals, etc.
Presbyterian Church.-This church was organized May 9, 1876, by a committee of the Huntingdon Presbytery, consisting of Revs. H. S. Butler and William M. Burchfield. The first original members were Richard and Thomas H. Simons, W. P., Mary P., Evaline, and Elizabeth Jones, John H. Bellis, Mary Jenkins, and Mrs. Margaret Smith. Richard and Thomas H. Simons (father and son) were the first elders. Well does the writer remember this little band, worshiping in the new hotel barn of the Rumbarger House (first ward); later, in the partially finished central school-house, while their own church building was being erected, which was done in the latter part of the summer of 1876. It is located in the second ward, on William street, adjoining the Central High School building. The original name of the church was "Bethany Presbyterian Church of Du Bois," until the fall of 1885, when the congregation dropped the word "Bethany," and it is now known as "The Presbyterian Church of Du Bois." Rev. J. R. Henderson did some preaching about the time of its organization, but Rev. William M. Burchfield regularly supplied the congregation (with the exception of Rev. Henderson's) until the spring of 1883. Owing to some technical misunderstanding Rev, Burchfield I'm obliged to resign. Then the church was without regular preaching until February 5, 1884, when the Presbytery, at the request of forty members, organized the " Second Presbyterian Church of Du Bois," which, for a little more than a year, was supplied by Rev. Burchfield, worshiping in Scalen's Hall. and later in the "Reformed Church." The old organization of fifty-six members then called Rev. J. V. Bell, of Penfield, Pa., who was installed the first regular pastor of the church May 25, 1884. Rev. Burchfield resigned his charge in February, 1885. A request was sent from "Bethany" (old) Church, Asking the members of the "Second" Church to return to their former home, and the majority agreeing, the Presbytery, on April 14, 1885, dissolved, the 'Second" Church, requesting the members to go back to "Bethany." In June 1884, the ladies purchased a fine bell weighing 950 pounds, at a cost of $286. The church building was repaired to the extent of $1,000 during the summer of 1886. There is also a comfortable parsonage in connection with this church. Present membership, 190; Sunday-school, 150 scholars. All difficulties and misunderstandings have apparently passed away, and the organization has a hopeful future.
Catholic Church.-The Catholic congregation of Du Bois was organized June, 1877. There were then only seven Catholic families to start with. in May, 1879, an effort was made to build a church, which resulted in the erection of a brick edifice, located in the first ward, on State street, sixty by thirty-two feet, and was dedicated in September of the same year. In June, 1882, a house for the resident priest was built and a third lot was purchased. In May, '84, an addition to the church with a tower was built, placing therein a fine bell weighing 1,250 lbs., it being the first good bell (in point of time) in the town. The congregation from the beginning has been under the pastoral care of the Rev. James Brennan, who still occupies that honored position. The congregation now owns a whole square on State street, (first ward), and the church is one of the finest in town, it cost over $10,000. A small debt is still on the property, with fair promises that it will be satisfied soon. The membership is about 1,300; Sunday school about 175 scholars.
Baptist Church.-The regular Baptist Church of Du Bois was organized on the 14th day of March, 1880, under the efficient leadership of Elder J. E. Dean, from Reynoldsville, Pa. A house of worship was built in the third ward, also under the management of Rev. Dean. The present pastor is Rev. H. H. Leamy. Deacons: John Gaskin, Isaac Letchworth and H. H. Weaver; clerk of. the church, L. R. Dressler. Membership 91, Bible school 90-average attendance.
Evangelical Lutheran Church.-In July, 1880, Rev. J. Ash of Shanondale, Clarion county, came here in the interest of the general council of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, to investigate what could be done towards establishing a mission. Nothing was done, however, until September, same year. The Rev. J. H. Kline, from Northampton county, came to Du Bois, and after consulting J. A. Terpe, J. J. Overdorf, S. P. Nelson and others, concluded to organize a mission, and preached in the Central school-house for some time. Then through the kindness of the Rev. W. M. Burchfield and the church council of the Presbyterian Church, held their services in the Presbyterian church for about six months, then sub-rented Scalen's Hall from the "Sons of Temperance." This was in the fall of 1883. This little congregation continued to worship here until the 24th day of November, 1884, when they dedicated their fine brick church, on Scribner avenue, (second ward). The size of this edifice is seventy by forty, with spire 116 feet high; total cost $7,500. The bell in the spire of this church weighs 1,500 lbs. and has a sweet and clear tone. The first church. council elected were: Daniel Frack, Isaac Frantz, S. P. Nelson and J. A. Terpe. On April 20, 1884, a Sabbath-school was established by electing superintendent, Rev. J. H. Kline; assistant superintendent, A. J. Hetrick; secretary, Joseph A. Terpe; treasurer, H. S. Knarr. The school is in prosperous condition; about seventy-five scholars. The Rev. J. H. Kline resigned (on account of ill health) in July, 1885. His resignation was accepted, and an. invitation was extended to Rev. I. K. Wismer, of Philadelphia, who came and preached a trial sermon on September 6. He was accepted and installed December 6, 1885. The present number of communicant members is 124. The organization has good prospects for the future
Reformed Church.-In the year of 1880 a Reformed congregation, consisting of twelve or fifteen members, was organized at Du Bois by a committee of Clarion classis of the "Reformed Church in the United States." For nearly two years succeeding its organization, this little congregation had no regular pastor, but was supplied with preaching occasionally by Revs. A. K. Kline, H. King, J. M. Evans, and others. On February 1, 1882, the congregation was organized as a mission, and its first pastor was Rev. D. H. Leader, who entered upon his labors as a missionary. The congregation worshiped in the Central school building (old) up till spring of 1883 (when the school building was removed to make room for the new brick building). Upon an invitation of Rev. Burchfield and the council of the Presbyterian Church, the congregation occupied the Presbyterian church till their own house of worship was completed. Some steps looking toward the building of a church had already been taken, and on Thanksgiving day, November 30, 1882, a meeting of the congregation was held to move in the matter of securing ground for the building of a church and parsonage. An excellent lot located on High street, (second ward), was purchased from E. M. Kuntz, and Christmas afternoon, 1882, a building committee consisting of W. E. Pifer, Joseph Pentz, L. E. Weber and David Walburn, with the pastor as leader and chairman, was appointed to secure plans and proceed to build the church.
On June 1, 1883, the church was commenced and the corner stone was laid July 1, 1 883. The sermon was preached by Rev. J. H. Apple, D. D., of Saegertown, Pa. On November 30, of the same year, it was completed at a cost of $5,200, of which about $800 is unpaid but provided for. It was dedicated December 2, 1883, at which service Rev. E. E. Higbee, D. D., St ate superintendent of public instruction, preached the sermon. Good fortune seemed to favor the enterprise, and in a short time the membership increased to thirty-five. On July 1 1884, Rev. D. H. Leader resigned, the charge retaining vacant until February, 1885, when Rev. W. M. Andrews became the pastor, but who resigned within the same year. Losses in membership have been sustained by frequent removals, death and other causes. Notwithstanding these losses, however, the number of communicants (January, 1887) was thirty-eight. The present energetic and efficient pastor is R. E. Crum, who began his labors in this church June 1, 1886.
A Sunday school in connection with the church was organized February 22, 1882, is in a growing condition and numbers about forty scholars.
The Protestant Episcopal Church.-At the instance and request of several members of the Protestant Episcopal church, residing in Du Bois, the Rev. Dr. J. H. Hopkins, of Williamsport Pa., visited Du Bois in 1881, and held the first services after the manner and usages of the Episcopal church. The Presbyterian house of worship was kindly offered by the officers and minister in charge, and was afterwards several times used by visiting clergymen of the Episcopal Church. No regular weekly services were held until Rev. G. B. Van Waters was sent by Bishop Whitehead of the diocese of Pittsburgh, to take charge of the mission. Early in August, 1883, soon after his arrival, a subscription was started for the purpose of building a church. When a sufficient amount was pledged to justify the enterprise, work was begun and a church building soon completed, costing about $2,600, located on a high, large and sightly lot, in the 3d ward, donated by the late John Du Bois. Rev. Van Waters continued in charge until Easter, 1885. From April until September, 1885, the church was without a regular minister, services being occasionally conducted by Rev, Joseph Barber, of Sugar Hill, Pa., and by a lay reader. Rev. H. Cruikshank took charge of the mission in September, '85, and who remains to the present time (1887). The present communicant membership is fifty-six, average attendance at Sunday-school is about fifty. The distinctive name of the organization is "Church of Our Saviour."
Places of Amusement.-Mankind are always happier for having been happy; so that if you make them happy now, you make them happy many years hence by enjoyment of it The people of Du Bois were not and are not exempt from the natural law above indicated, that "Mirth is the spice of life." Their first or earlier amusements were that of a Literary Society, which met over the storeroom of J. B. Ellis as early as 1874, with an occasional magic lantern, with Bible scenes, and comic views, or sometimes a strolling "Punch and Judy" performer. This state of affairs in the amusement circles lasted until 1879, when Eureka Hall. on Courtney' street, was opened by Sig. Bosco, with a gift show in September of the same year, In 1880 a stock company built an opera house on Long street, which was opened in November, 1880, by the Alice Landon Combination, but was destroyed by fire the third night after its opening (the first large fire in town). Barrs's Hall, on Courtney street, was then transformed into a so-called opera house, with a stage so small and low that I tall actor would almost touch the "flies." It was used until 1883, when the Central Opera House was built by a stock company, of which. L. A. Brady, I. Butler. J. M. Troxell, and Andrew Smith, and others, were the projectors and principal stockholders. Up to the opening of this large hall, with a seating capacity of nine hundred-ground floor-the plays were rather of an inferior order, as good troupes would not stop for want of a good house or hall. This how is located on Courtney street, near "Plank road," central Du Bois. It was opened on January 2, 1883, by the Gertrude Elliott Company, scoring a success from the start Boyer & Hibner are the present (1887) managers. The Du Bois Opera House was built by the late millionaire lumberman, John Du Bois. The building was commenced in the spring of 1885, and completed is the fall of 1886. The seating capacity is 1,200 on the third floor and gallery. The stage is 32 by 58 feet, twenty-six feet opening, eight large and well furnished dressing-rooms, sixteen complete sets of scenery, and a full stock "set stuff." The auditorium is furnished with the Du Bois patent folding opera chair, lighted throughout with Edison incandescent light, heated by the Sturtevant Caloric system, which consists in fanning hot air from the Du Bois Iron Works by a seven-foot fan. Two of the best scenic artists in the United States were employed seven months getting up the scenery of this house. This opera. house is located in East Du Bois, Third ward, near the A. V. depot, and is, without doubt, the finest in western Pennsylvania. It was opened on December 4, 1886, by Lawrence Barrett in "Richelieu;" E. B. Nettleton, manager.
Du Bois New Store.-In this connection we will mention Mr. Du. Bois's new store rooms, as they are in the Opera House building, and complete the original and unique plan of the late Mr. John Du Bois. The building and furnishment stands to-day as he intended-the expression of his own idea. The building stands on a heavy stone foundation, 61 by 140 feet in size. The frame is made exceptionally strong, and is still further strengthened by heavy, brick walls, cement covered, and painted in rectangular blocks to imitate stone. The store is divided into three aisles, the central one being nine feet between the counters, while the side aisles are seven feet wide. The main entrance is through heavy double doors on the north face of the building, on each side of which are large plate-glass show windows, each being 15 feet by 9 feet, and 5 feet deep. The cashier's desk is semi-circular in form, and stands at the end of the aisles, facing the center one. At the southwest corner is the elevator shaft, in which runs a handsome Marshall elevator, 6 by 4 1/2 feet, the motor being water and atmospheric pressure. The basement is a very large room used as a ware-room and meat market, etc. The second floor is divided into fourteen rooms-seven on each side of a seven foot hall, which runs through the entire length of the building., Four of these rooms form the suite of offices for the general business of the firm, the remaining rooms being devoted to store purposes. Mr. C. R. Fowler is manager, and has been identified with the business since its inception in 1874. There are fifteen employees in connection with the store. The establishment is lighted throughout with the Edison incandescent electric light.,
Gymnasium Association.-Pursuant to a call or notice in the public prints, a meeting was held in. the Central Opera House, August 4, 1885, to organize a gymnasium association. P. S. Weber was the temporary chairman, who tersely stated the object of the meeting, and the importance of physical exercise, and the benefits to be derived from an organization of this kind. The plan met with approval, and an organization effected by the election of the following permanent officers: Frank Weiser, president; E. F. Vosburg, vice president; W. S. Hollister, secretary; J. P. Martin, assistant secretary, and J. E. Du Bois, treasurer. The first board of directors was composed of D. D. Delaney, D. E. Hibner, H. Landis, A. S. Moulthrop, and Hugh McCollough, The association started with about twenty-five members, but steadily and healthily grew to a present membership of over fifty. McCollough's Hall (First ward) was rented and properly equipped, which was occupied until January 1 1887, when they moved into larger, more convenient and comfortable quarters in Knarr's new brick block, on Courtney street (Second ward). The association has a reading room, to which its members have access at all times, on the tables of which can be found the best American periodical literature, as well as foreign. The motto of the association is: "Mental improvement through physical development."
There is also an amateur dramatic club in connection with the association, composed of members of the gymnasium, which club rendered "Solon Shingle" in the Central Opera House on April 20, 1886. It proved a decided success, financially as well as otherwise, and they reproduced "Solon Shingle" in Brookville, Pa., in May, 1886, where another success was scored, winning the hearty good will and respect of all who favored the club with their patronage. The dramatic club of the association also rendered "Ten Nights in a Barroom" on March 22, 1887, to a full and well pleased house, giving entire satisfaction. The association has a promising future, no debts, and a "snug" surplus in the treasury.
Bands.-The elements of music are in everything around us; they are found in every part of creation; in the chirpings of the feathered choristers of nature; in the voices or calls of various animals; in the melancholy sound of the waterfall, or the wild roar of the waves; in the hum of the distant multitudes, or the dying cadence falls lightly on the ears as it agitates the trees of the forest as when the hurricane sweeps around.
All these contain the rudiments of harmony, and may be easily supposed to have furnished the minds of intelligent creatures with such ideas of sound as time and the accumulated observations of succeeding ages could not fail to improve into a system. What ages passed before the full-fledged brass band was evolved would be hard to fix; suffice it to say that a band is 'low considered a necessity in every civilized community, and that Du Bois early realized the fact by starting out with a martial band known as "Daddy" Cummings's "sheep-skin" band, organized early in 1877. It kept its organization for about three years. About the middle of July, 1877, an effort was made to organize a brass band. The elements which were to compose it could not agree being millmen, miners, and others; the great struggle seemed to be about the name, some wanting one, and others another, which, however, was amicably settled at a "meeting and social dance" on "Island No. 10," near the present fair-ground, by the writer, in a speech, requesting that the new band should be called the "Excelsior," urging the organization to try and live up to its name, and advance higher and higher. A few seemed dissatisfied and formed a rival band, composed almost exclusively of miners, calling it the to "Rochester" band. It prospered for several years with varied success and finally changed its name to "Dush" band, but the long strike in 1885 disintegrated it The "Excelsior" too had its reverses; it also reorganized in 1880, but retaining its old name, and in the fall of the same year it was the successful competitor for a silver cornet at the Jefferson county fair at Brookville Pa. This success gave prestige and great popularity. In June, 1881, it was made a chartered institution, known as the "Excelsior Cornet Band Association," but in the spring of 1883 it was "down" again, and was sold out, and disbanded for a few weeks, and again reorganized as "Excelsior Cornet Band of Du Bois," but tenaciously holding to "Excelsior," by which name it bad gained the reputation as the best band in the entire country around. Its musical director is H. S. McCautry;. its leader is John Stanton; business manager, John Murphy. The organization is in good standing, has no debts, and a surplus in its treasury.
The "McCautry" band was organized in the spring of 1885, composed mainly of residents of the Third ward; it seemed to be on a fair way to success, but its life was too short to make much of a record, for it kept up its organization only about one year.
The "Roscoe Orchestra" of the Roscoe brothers and others, deserves favorable mention, as it often furnishes music for theatrical troupes with honor to itself and delight to its audiences.
Manufacturing Interests.-Next in importance after the vast manufacturing interests of J. E. Du Bois, is the large tannery of Du Bois & Van Tassel Bros. It has been erroneously stated by some of the public prints that the entire concern is owned by John E. Du Bois. This is a mistake. Mr. Du Bois is simply a partner in the business, and the management is separate from the large business affairs of Mr. Du Bois. The tannery is located in the Third ward. It was erected in the summer of 1884, and commenced operations September 1, the same year. It employs about seventy-five men, and has a capacity of one thousand hides per week. The production is what is known as "Rough" leather, and is finished ready for sale, and is principally sold to curriers in the city of Boston. Mass., who finally finish it for the manufacture of ladies' shoes. This tannery uses all the hides which the surrounding country supplies, but the great bulk comes from the West and Southwest, also occasionally from England and Germany. This firm employs all the latest improvements in their line, and is on a constant "look-out" for new and practical machinery. The consumption of hemlock bark averages about seven thousand tons per year, at five dollars per ton. It is the intention of this firm to enlarge their tannery to double its present capacity during 1887.
Fuller's Mills.-In 1876 J. B. Shaffer (deceased, and who lost an arm in the erection of the Du Bois "Big Mill"), who was an experienced and expert mechanic, erected a nice and substantial saw and shingle- mill one hundred and four by thirty-two feet, two stories high. He did successful business up to the time of his death, which occurred several years later. This mill, known as the "Centennial" mill, with about thirty acres of "bottom" land was sold to Hamor & Kuntz, at Orphans' Court Sale, who in June, 1883, sold the mill with several acres of ground to Sydney Fuller, who remodeled the mill, putting in a circular saw, shingle, lath and picket machinery, also stave, broom, rake and fork-handle machinery; capacity per diem, 20,000 boards, 16,000 shingles, 5,000 lath, 3,000 pickets, and about 3,000 broom handles and 4,000 staves, In 1886 he built a planing-mill in connection with the saw-mill, which turns out flooring, siding and all kinds of planing-mill work. These mills run about two-thirds of the year, giving employment to a considerable number of men and boys. J. A. Tayler is general superintendent.
Sash and Door Factory.-The sash and door factory of Messrs. Barber & Scully was commenced in 1883, but owing to some difference with the late John Du Bois, bearing on the supply of rough lumber, they discontinued in the spring of 1886 and removed their machinery. The large and conveniently located factory building is now standing empty.
City Flouring Mills.-In 1873 Barr & Co.'s planing-mill was built A few years later it was purchased by W. T. Ross, who remodeled it in 1879, making it a burr-system grist-mill. In 1884 he changed it into a "new process mill," and reconstructed it throughout by putting in a complete "gradual reduction system" on rolls, with an average daily capacity of sixty bbls. flour, making what is known as "straight" grade flour, also all kinds of feed and meal. The power is furnished by a Bigler, Young & Co. fifty horse power engine. This mill enjoys shipping facilities second to none in the county, being provided with a private siding to its doors. Its supplies are principally brought from Buffalo and Chicago. The mill is situated in the first ward, near the B. R. & P. depot.
Wingert's Planing-Mill.-In the spring of 1882 there was a citizens' stock company organized and known as the "Du Bois Wood Manufacturing Co.," which never succeeded beyond the erection and operation of a planing-mill.
In 1884 Heberling Bros. bought up the stock and continued to operate It as a planing-mill. In the fall of 1885 Heberling Bros. sold to William Wingert who remodeled and improved it to some extent, stocking it with the required rough lumber, running it till the end of '86, when he leased it to Walter Hatten, who now operates it as a planing-mill, doing all kinds of planing-mill work. The mill is located in first ward adjoining Bell, Lewis & Yates's coal yard.
ORDERS AND SOCIETIES
Knights of Labor.-Eureka Assembly, No. 136, was instituted in 1875 and, as all assemblies at that time, its sessions were held secretly.
In January, 1878, the first general assembly met in Reading, Pa., and shortly after charters were granted to the different assemblies, and sessions were held openly. This assembly obtained its charter in June, 1879. In a few years the assembly had a membership of about three hundred, composed mostly of miners and mill men. A rupture brought it down to six members In good standing. This number held the charter by paying all the taxes to the general assembly till the seventh member, by a transfer card, was added, now making a legal quorum. Meetings were regularly held from that time forward, membership again began to grow, and at the present time this assembly has enrolled sixty members in good standing. Its membership is composed of the better class of miners, lumbermen, laborers, school teachers, merchants, etc., making it a very conservative assembly, owing to the diversified interests it embraces; but on one point the members are radical and united, that is: "Arbitration and no strikes."
The assembly is in a healthy, growing condition, with fair future prospects. Place of meeting is in Knarr's new brick block, Courtney street, second ward.
I. O. O. F.-The Du Bois City Lodge, No. 951 I. O. O. F., applied for a charter in August, 1877. A charter was granted on September 5, and the lodge was instituted October 16, 1877, with twenty-four charter members, on the second floor, over Tracy & Barr's grocery, on Long street. June 10, 1881, it held its first meeting in the " Schwem Block," now "Loeb's," on the third floor. On December 10, 1886, it removed to the "Knarr" brick block, third floor, Courtney street, being one of the finest halls in the town. Its present membership is seventy-five. Officers when instituted (October 16, 1877), were: J. P. Taylor, N. G.; P. B. Weaver, V. G.; Ed. Cotter, secretary; A. L. Hoy, assistant secretary; W. G. Irvin, treasurer. The financial standing the order on October 31, 1886, was as follows: Money invested, $1,166.66; money in the treasury, $1,223.11; furniture and regalia, $829.23. Total, $3,219.
Chivalric Lodge, No. 475 K. Of P.-This order was instituted September 8, 1881. T. J. Boyer was the originator (in the town) and was elected its first presiding officer. Forty-one members were initiated on the day of its institution. Its present membership is 104; number of deaths (during its institution time) two. This order is based on "Damon and Pythias," and its origin dates to (immediately after) the close of the late war. Its object then was to again establish the feeling of fraternal love between the North and the South. A worthy object indeed!
G. A. R.-Early in the fall of 1881 Captain L. M. Truxal, J. A. Johnston, James Hines, and others, conceived the idea of organizing a " Post " of the G. A. R. in Du Bois. In October the same year a meeting was called for the purpose of making application, at which meeting the following names were signed on the application, viz.: Captain L. M. Truxal, Major James Hines, J. A. Johnston, Thomas J. Foster, Sylvester Moulthrop, A. M. Slack, D. D. Moore, R. T. McConaughy, D. W. Thurston, John McGinnis, Calvin Dixon, Henry Lindsay, Mortimer Farley, Isaac Hendricks, W. T. Ross, William M. McIntosh, T. W. Thorpe, William Thompson, John Crawford, and Andrew King. These names were engrossed on the charter. The post is called the " J. W. Easton Post," in honor of an old worthy and intelligent soldier, who enlisted in Company J, Pennsylvania Militia, on November 9, 1862, and was discharged July 28, 1863. He came to Du Bois in 1872, was a carpenter by trade, and died in 1878, respected by all. After the name had been chosen, the application was sent to headquarters at Philadelphia. The charter was granted on the 27th day of October, 1881. The first regular meeting was held in the "Odd Fellows Hall," November 5, 188 1, at which time Captain L. M. Truxal was elected commander, and J. A. Johnston, adjutant.; The organization grew steadily until it increased to a membership of 124; but, through injudicious selection of officers, removals from town, deaths, etc., the membership was gradually reduced, so that, at the present time (January, 1887), it only numbers eighty. The financial standing of the order is good-no debts, and a surplus in the treasury.
S. of V.-This organization is of recent birth, but bids fair to become an enduring order in the United States. In point of time, other orders should take precedence in this narrative, but owing to its close connection with the G. A. R. (being an out-growth of the same), we give it space immediately after the G. A. R.
"Moulthrop" Camp No. 142, S. of V-This camp was organized in Du Bois, August 9, 1883, with. fifteen charter members. The organization was named "Moulthrop" Camp in honor of Sylvester Moulthrop, deceased, who was an active and highly respected member of "Easton" Post of the G. A. R. The success of the organization, in a great measure, is due to A. S. Moulthrop, C. C. Simmers, G. L. Griffin, and the Kessler brothers. Like many other new organizations, it went through a period of uncertainty as to its future existence, but through the earnest efforts of the above named members, who were familiar with the aim, object, and working of the order, it was carried over this critical period, and at present stands on a firm and prosperous basis, with a membership of fifty in good standing. All sons of deceased or honorably discharged soldiers, sailors, or mariners, who served in the Federal army or navy during the Civil War of 1861-65, are eligible, on attaining the age of eighteen years; also, on attaining the age of twenty-one years, all sons of members of the order in succeeding generations. The organization is strictly non-partisan and non-political. The introduction or discussion of sectarian or political topics within the "Camp" are strictly prohibited, under the penalty of a fine, of suspension or expulsion from the order.
F & A. M.-Early in the spring of 1882 C. M. Powers conceived the idea that a lodge of the F. & A. M. could be organized in the town, and at once set to work to accomplish the laudable task, assisted by Rev. William M. Burchfield and others, and to him (Powers) belongs the credit and honor of accomplishing the undertaking. On May 4, 1882, "Garfield Lodge No. 559, F. & A. M," was instituted by District Deputy Grand Master E. W. Hale, of Bellefonte, Pa. starting out with but seven members. The order has steadily grown till now (1887) it has fifty members, It is in a prosperous and promising condition. having no debts and a nice surplus in the treasury. The first officers were the following: W. M. Rev. William M. Burchfield; J. W., E. Whitney; J D., L. N. Guy; chap, Rev. A. W. Platt; S. W., C. M. Powers; S. D., W. N. Prothero; purs., W. N. Grey. Hall at present, third floor, Loeb's Block, on Long street.
P. O. S. of A.- Washington Camp No. 269. of P. 0. S, of A." was instituted, May 10, 1883, by J. D. McClintock district president, with a charter membership of seventeen. Notwithstanding a slight drawback, occasioned by the selection of injudicious officers in the early days of the order, it nevertheless prospered and grew to a membership of ninety-four; at the present time ('87) this camp is on a solid financial basis, has no debts, and a surplus in its treasury.
The order has for its objects the inculcation of pure love for the institutions of our Native Land;" the opposition to foreign interference with state interests the United States of America; the cultivation of fraternal affections; the preservation of the Constitution of the United States; and the propagation of free education." This order embraces also a beneficiary or insurance feature, which is under control of the National Camp.
Royal Arcanum.-The Du Bois Council No. .7,75, Royal Arcanum, was organized June 11 1883, under a charter from the Grand Council of Pennsylvania with twenty-two charter members, among which are the following, who took an active part in establishing the council, viz.: I. T. Klingensmith. Captain L. S. Hay, C E. Bostwick J. W. Carson, Levi Heidrick George Weber, and A. S. Beard (deceased). The council was instituted by W. H. Wright, district deputy. The first officers were the following: Regent, I. T. Klingensmith; secretary, W. H. H. Bell ; treasurer, Levi Heidrick. The order is a beneficiary and social organization. It has paid into the widow and orphan's fund an amount not exceeding $goo since its organization to the present time, and the Supreme Council has paid $3,000 benefit to the widow and orphans of the late A . S. Beard, who was a charter member. The order has no debts, and a surplus in its treasury, with favorable prospects for growth in the future,
Ancient Order of United Workmen.-Du Bois City Lodge, No. 199, of A. O. U. W., was instituted May 19, 1883, having twenty-seven charter members. The first officers were: P. M. W., C. E. Bostwick; M. W., Jacob Truby; F., L. S. Hay; O., H. S. McCaughry; R., A. B. Weed; fin., B. Benedict; rec., J. W. Grier; G., E. E. Wilson; I. W., S. W. Brewer; 0. W., W. McIntosh. The growth of this lodge has been a healthy one. Its present membership is eighty-five M. W. in good standing. Financially, the lodge is on a firm basis, having a nice surplus in the receiver's hands. But one death has occurred since its organization, that of Nelson T. Arms, engineer, killed at Falls Creek, in a railroad accident, August 12, 1886.
Select Knights.-Du Bois Legion, No. 18, Select Knights of A. O. U. W., was instituted October 24, 1884. Ile officers elected at the institution of the order were: L. S. Hay, com.; G. Woodring, V. com.; J. W. Grier, L. com.; C. E. Bostwick, rec. ; T. G. Gormley, treas. ; C. R. Fowler, rec. treas. ; A. B. Lesher, mar. ; Ivor James, chap.; E. G. Searls, S. B.; L. A. Brady, S. W.; W. McIntosh, J. W.; W. E. Hay, guard; L. D. Balliet, W. A. Means, L. A. Brady, trustees; L. D. Balliet, M. D., W. A. Means, M. D., medical examiners. The legion has progressed favorably, has doubled its membership, and is in good growing condition.
A. O. H.-A lodge of this order was instituted in Du Bois in May, 1876. Among the charter members were the following: Thomas Flanigan, Michael Shea, John McDermott, Terrence McDermott, James Cranny. Its present membership is in good standing, and numbers one hundred and twenty-five. The order is a Catholic beneficial organization, granting five dollars per week to members in case of sickness, or disability through accident, and in case of death the widow gets one hundred and fifty dollars, and funeral expenses Paid by the order.
Sons of St. George.-General Grant Lodge, No. 181, was instituted September 23, 1885, under a charter, granted August 29 of the same year. It started out with thirty-two charter members, and has since-to the present time-increased to forty-two members. The order is in, a healthy, growing condition, has no debts, and a surplus in its treasury. The officers are the following: W. P. P., George Minns; W. V. P., Joseph Goodyear; W. T., Thomas Smale; W. A. S., Peter Spooner; W. P., Thomas Brown; W. S., Richard Stanton; W. M., Jacob Tate; W. I. S., William Ledger ; W. A. Joseph Wilson; W. C., William Stubbs; W. 0. S., Joseph Baker. Thomas Brown and Joseph Goodyear were the prime and earnest workers in establishing a lodge of this order in Du Bois. "This order is composed of Englishmen, their sons, and grandsons." It has a beneficiary feature, which is based on degree of member as to the amount of weekly benefit in case of sickness.
Women's Christian Temperance Union.-The W. C. T. U. was organized in October, 1885. It has a present membership of over one hundred. Mrs. F. H. Beck. is president.
Cooper.Temperance League.-This organization was started in June, 1886. The membership consists of adults. Each member is required to sign the "Murphy pledge." Its present membership is fifty. The league is officered as follows: President, vice-president, secretary and executive committee
Temperance Cadets.-The Cadets organized in June, 1886, under the supervision of Mrs. Dr. Balliet, Mrs. C. D. Gray, and Mr. A. F. Avery. The command consists of boys from the ages of ten to twenty-one. All members are required to sign the Murphy pledge, and drill once per week present membership, seventy-five.
Band of Hope.-Organized in July, 1896, consisting of small children who are instructed in the principles of temperance.
Good Templars. -This society had an organization, but finally disbanded.
Y. M. C. A.-This society also had, an organization, and existed about one year.
The Sons of Maccabee.-This order started with fair prospects, but fell into improper hands and died. .
Land League.-Failed to secure data.
Amalgamated Association.-Failed to secure data.
The Press.- The liberty of the. press is the true measure of the, liberty of the people. The one cannot be attacked without injury to the other. Our thoughts ought to be perfectly free-to bridle them or stifle them in their sanctuary is the crime of . . . . .humanity. What can I call my own If my thoughts are not mine ?"--Mercier.
The initial attempt to establish a paper in Du Bois dates back to 1876, when the writer published a small monthly called The Enterprise. It reached four issues of two thousand copies each. It was devoted to the interests of the town, especially in the sale of real estate. Its publisher intended in 1877 10 establish a weekly paper, as will appear from the prospectus, from the last hue of The Enterprise (September, 1876), which is here inserted:
Prospectus of the Weekly Enterprise.-A fresh and lively local newspaper, striving to 'keep up' and abreast with the ,- present: progressive age. Independent in politics and religion; not ignoring these subjects, but leaving them to journals especially devoted to. the same. The Enterprise will be devoted to the agricultural, lumbering, manufacturing, and mining interests of this specially blessed section of the old Keystone State. The agricultural department will not be a 'rehash' of articles from agricultural papers, published in different latitudes than ours; but fresh observations made by our own farmers, hence, practical.
"The other departments will receive the same special attention, giving the latest and best observations on plans and improvements in their respective fields of labor.
"Education and literature will receive due respect -in fine The Enterprise shall ever strive to be a first-class local newspaper, giving all the important local and legal news of both Clearfield and Jefferson counties, and continually aiming to do honor to its motto: 'Truth is mighty and will prevail.' Published weekly, Terms of subscription: $1.50 per year, strictly in advance, Address.: The Weekly Enterprise, Du Bois, Pa."
But early in the spring of 1877 the undertaking was abandoned, and the projector dropped into the mercantile channel.
The Du Bois. Courier.-In January, 1879, Butler & Horton established a weekly paper which they named -The Du Bois Courier, a seven column folio. One year later they changed to Du Bois Weekly Courier. Mr. Butler, the editor, having an innate desire to see the world at large as it is, the firm sold the entire concern to J. A. Johnston in June, 1882, changing the name again by dropping the word " weekly," and in March, 1884, enlarged the paper to an eight column folio. In October, the same year, Mr. Johnston sold a one-half interest to E. W. Gray, and the business was carried on in the firm name of J. Johnston & Co. In October, 1886, R. L. Earl bought Mr. Johnston's interest in the plant. It now was changed from an independent to a Republican journal by the new firm of Earl & Gray.
Considering the early period in the history of the town when this paper was started. Its present prosperous condition speaks well of the individuals through whose fostering hands it passed..
The Du Bois Express was established October 12 1883, by Hoag, Wilson & Co. It is an independent local paper. January 1, 1887, the firm changed, Mr. S. B. Hoag retiring; H. C. Wilson, Frank McMichael. John P. Wilson, and C. A. Read forming the new firm known as the Express Publishing Company, Its circulation is over 1,100, and is steadily increasing. It is an eight column folio paper. This paper, too, is conducted by live and energetic men, and the advent of the Express stimulated the Courier so that gentle rivalry promoted the growth of both journals.
Driving Park Association.-The sketch of this association should properly have appeared under the head of Agriculture, but wishing to present the different organizations, etc., in a chronological order we shall, insert it here.
On June 10, 1886 "The Du Bois Agricultural and Driving Park Association" was organized, and the following officers were elected: J. E. Du Bois, president; John Rumbarger, vice-president; L. M. Truxal, secretary, and G. D. Hamor, treasurer. The capital stock was fixed at $10,000, in shares of $10 each. The association was incorporated August 9, 1886. Article II of its constitution reads: "The objects of this corporation are to encourage and foster among the citizens of Clearfield and adjoining counties a spirit of improvement in the agricultural productions of the said counties, and the breeding, raising and training of all kinds of stock, and also to afford a pleasure park for driving and other innocent sports and amusements."
The first annual fair was held September 7, 8, 9, and 10, 1886, scoring an undisputed success in attendance, exhibits, etc.
The gross receipts amounted to $5,462.40. The main exhibition building is 40 by 40 feet, with a central tower and four wings, extension of sixty feet each. The grand stand is 309 by 32 feet, with a band cupola, all under roof, furnishing a seating capacity of about 3,000. The dance pavilion and department of public comfort is 40 by 80 feet, and a nice pump-house with a never-failing well of pure, soft water. The judges stand is 12 by 12, twenty-two feet high. The ground covers thirty acres, part of which is nicely shaded with primitive forest The race course, or "track" is known as the "fast" track, in contradistinction of the "national" track. The length of the sides is 710 feet, curve 610 feet, making (raised curve 31/2 feet) uniform. curves, there being only three other race courses in the United States like it. Such superior advantages for the trial of speed are limited, hence the association intends to inaugurate a series of races in the month of June of each year to be known as the "June races."
The horse barn is 750 feet long, furnishing sixty-six stalls. The cattle barn is 528 feet long, divided into eighty-eight stalls. The sheep and pig-pen is 300 feet long, with about fifty stalls, and the poultry-house is 110 feet long.
Hotels.-The "Rumbarger" House was the first hotel in Du Bois, opened about 1873 or 1874 by J. M. Bryan. The next was the "City Hotel" in the Second ward, opened by E. M. Kuntz, in 1875. The "Central" Hotel, Second ward, was built in 1878 by Laberee & Emerson, now kept by S. J. Mead. The "Emmet" House was built by W. H. Stanly in 1879. The "Du Bois House" Third ward, was built in 1879 by the late John Du Bois. The "National" Hotel, Second ward, was built in 1877 by Mrs. Annie Painter, and opened as a hotel in 1882 by W. C. Quigley, present proprietor. The "Nicholson House," Second ward, was built in 1880. W. L. Nicholson was the first proprietor" it is now kept by J. A. Burk. The "Terpe" House, Second ward, opened in 1881 by Strowbridge & Holmes, now kept by J. J. Hildinger. The "Alpine House," Second ward was opened by James Hines, the present proprietor and owner.
The "Baker House," "McNulty House," "Nihil House,"Miner's Home," and the "Riddell House," all of the First ward, and the "Gorton House," Second ward, opened all about the same time.
Du Bois Alms-House.-" The poor you have with you always." This quotation needs no elucidation, except that the borough seemed to have more than the humble taxpayer desired to support without an alms-house. Therefore, Major James Hines, the leading member of the board of poor directors, made application (signed by the citizens) to court, in the March term, 1886, asking a grant to allow Du Bois borough to build her own. alms-house. The application was rejected, and a vote on the establishment of a county poor-house ordered; at general November election the vote against a poor-house was overwhelming, Major Hines, "nothing daunted," made a second application for a borough alms-house. The application this time was favorably received. and the request granted in January, 1887.
The board proceeded at once and leased a farm for five years (with suitable house and barn) known as the "Terpe Homestead," at Salem, on the "Pike," .four miles from Du Bois, in Brady township. The borough had nineteen charges when the alms-house. was opened, at an average monthly expense of over $300. The expense of the board for the same purpose in 1885 amounted to $5,383; in 1886 to $3,341.
The board has granted no orders for relief since the latter part of February, 1887, and now (August 1887) the Du Bois alms-house has no inmates belonging to the borough; there are, however, eleven paupers from other districts, from which Du Bois receives compensation. The estimated expense for the first year, under the new regime, is within $1,000. Comment unnecessary.
Board of Trade.-Last but not least is the recent establishment of a board of trade in Du Bois. The local press and business men in general frequently urged the formation of such an organization, having the, advancement of the material and industrial interests of the infant city and vicinity at heart. On March 21, 1887, a permanent organization was effected, known as the Board of Trade of Du Bois The officers at present are P. S. Weber, president; F. D. Van Tassel, first vice-president; John Rumbarger, second vice-president; L. A. Brady, secretary;, John B. Ellis, W. W. Rainey, John Horner, Levi Heidrick, H. S. Knarr, W. N. Prothero, G. I- Vosburg, directors; W. L. Johnston J. B. Ellis, W. C. Pentz, H. Loeb, L. M. Truxall, committee on correspondence; John E. Du Bois, Fred. A. Bell, E. D. Van Tassel, S. B. Elliott, E. M. Kuntz, R. L Earl, Harry C. Wilson, executive committee. As everybody seems interested in the objects of the "Board," good results may be expected.
In recapitulating the resources of the town and immediate vicinity permit the writer to quote from the August number of the Enterprise, which he published here in 1876:
"These elements, coal, lumber, and agriculture, are destined to bring about the large manufactories, which give a lasting stability to a city or nation. Manufactories have given England, despite her cramped and isolated position, a rule and sway which girts the globe. They have given the Eastern States a prestige and power as permanent as it has been rapid.
"Manufactories added to its unparalleled advantages as an agricultural focus, and, coupled with timber, coal and other minerals, are building for Du Bois (borough) a commercial supremacy, destined to endure and wax stronger as long as the continent exists."
Source: Pages 376-406, History of Clearfield County, Pennsylvania, edited by Lewis Cass Aldrich, Syracuse, NY: D. Mason & Co., Publishers, 1887.
Transcribed May 1999 by Dorcas J. Moseley for the Clearfield County Aldrich Project
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